Environmental Assessment

Mining KatangaEnvironmental assessment is a procedure, ensuring the incorporation of environmental, and where required, social and economic information in sound and well-balanced decision making.


Environmental assessment process

The environmental assessment process involves:

  • analysing the likely effects and impact of the decisions;
  • organising public participation;
  • developing and comparing alternatives;
  • incorporating the impact, alternatives and comments from the general public in a report;
  • taking the report into account when making the final decision; 
  • informing the public about that decision.


Important aspects concerning the process are:

  • the quality of information: is the information relevant for decision making?
  • the relevance for decision making: can the process still influence decision making?
  • the transparency of the process: is it clear who will be taking the decisions and when?
  • stakeholder participation: is the general public indeed consulted and if so, have  they been informed at the right moment about the plans and process?



Environmental assessment can be undertaken at two levels:


The key stages of ESIA and SEA are fairly similar. However, the actual tasks and stakeholders involved during those phases can be quite different. The table below illustrates the main differences.


Process Iterative Linear
Screening Mostly decided case by case Projects requiring EA are often listed
Scoping Combination of political agenda, stakeholder discussion and expert judgement Combination of local issues and

technical checklists

Public Participation Focus on representative bodies Often include general public
Assessment More qualitative (expert judgement) More quantitative
Quality review Both quality of information and stakeholder process Focus on quality of information
Decision making Comparison of alternatives against policy objectives Comparison against norms and standards
Monitoring Focus on plan implementation Focus on measuring actual impacts


Environmental assessment is a strong instrument as it is anchored in the legislation of a growing number of countries worldwide. The world map below shows the historical adoption of ESIA and SEA legislation and practice worldwide.

Worldmap of EIA/SEA legislation